On April 10, 1919, several Indian National Congress-affiliated leaders including Satyapal and Saifuddin Kitchlew were arrested under the Rowlatt Act.

Protesters protesting were shot dead by British soldiers, sparking riots.

On April 13, more than 20,000 unarmed civilians gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar to celebrate the important Hindu and Sikh festival of Baisakhi, as well as to protest peace and imprisonment.

Udham Singh and his friends from the orphanage were providing water to the crowd.

Soldiers under the command of Colonel Reginald Dyer opened fire on the crowd, killing several hundred;

this is variously known as Amritsar Massacre or Jallianwala Bagh massacre.